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Inca Artifacts | Archaeological Dig Sites | Pre-Columbian Artifacts


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Inca artifacts "borrowed" by Yale University and displayed in its Peabody Museum became the center of a controversy in 2010 that was brought to the public's attention by various news reporters.

Peru claimed that these artifacts, many from sites such as Machu Picchu and other Inca diggings, belonged to that country and should be returned.

A lawsuit was filed.







Then in 2011, Yale University buckled under to Peru's logical claim and began returning the artifacts in March of 2011.

The story behind this mini-drama began around the beginning of the past century.



Background


Pre-Columbian: From civilizations existing prior to Columbus and the Spanish Conquerors


  1. Pre-Columbian artifacts have long been coveted by people both in the private and public sectors of  archaeology (archeology).

  2. As a result, illegal and semi-legal forms of looting have taken place in different archaeological dig sites, with those of the ancient Inca Civilization of Peru, South America, among the many victims.

  3. A huge number of archaeological artifacts from Peru's famous Machu Picchu ended up in Yale University's Peabody Museum without proof that they had been obtained in a legitimate fashion.

Inca Artifacts from Peru's Archaeological Dig Sites

In 1911, Hiram Bingham, a Yale University alumni (on whom of the movie character Indiana Jones was later based) rediscovered the Inca stronghold of Machu Picchu.

Hiram Bingham, a playboy archaeologist, made this extremely-significant discovery in the rain forest mountains of southern Peru. Then began what has been termed a "loan" or possible "looting" of Inca artifacts by Yale University's Peabody Museum.




Inca Artifacts



Although Peru's then President Alan Garcia admitted that the artifacts taken from the Machu Picchu archaeological site were probably in good hands during the past 100 years, he also called for their immediate return and filed a lawsuit when an agreement was not reached.

Pre-Columbian Artifacts

In the collection acquired by the Peabody Museum as a result of Hiram Bingham's archaeological discoveries, there are more than 40,000 items from the Machu Picchu site, including many hundreds of high-quality museum pieces.

In December 2010, after much controversy, an agreement was finally reached between Peru and Yale University whereby Yale would return all of the artifacts to the government of Peru.

The agreement also called for a team of archaeologists and museum experts from Yale to travel to Peru to ensure that the Inca artifacts were to be stored in a suitable place until a permanent museum could be constructed in Cusco, the capital of the ancient Inca Empire and closest city to Machu Picchu.

From Yale's Peabody Museum to Cusco, Peru

An historically-important house in Cusco, Peru, was renovated and became the temporary resting place for these thousands of Inca artifacts.

This manor house, dating from the period of Spanish colonization of Peru, was deemed suitable for the storage of the archaeological artefacts until a permanent museum could be built in Cusco.



Fiction from Amazon.com - High in the Andes, Dr. Henry Conklin discovers a 500-year-old mummy that should not be there. While deep in the South American jungle, Conklin's nephew, Sam, stumbles upon a remarkable site nestled between two towering peaks, a place hidden from human eyes for thousands of years.


Growing Concern - Archaeology News

There has been growing concern over the illegal exploitation of hundreds of Pre-Columbian artifacts from the archaeological dig sites in Peru, including mummies and artifacts from sites such Chan Chan, Kuelap, Sipan, and many others.

A lot has changed in the 100 years since Hiram Bingham first set eyes on the magnificent ruins of Machu Picchu hidden among the verdant jungle plants.

There have been numerous other archaeological discoveries in various areas of Peru. Not only has Yale's Peabody Museum acquired artifacts from Peru, either on loan or permanently, but organizations in every part of the world wake up when there is news of further archaeology news originating from this hotbed of ancient cultures.

Certainly, it is worth your while to take a trip and see these famous sites.

Archaeological Sites in Peru

Sites where there is a "dig" going vary from month to month and location to location. Check local information to find out where the digs are. Usually, the nearest university to the site will have information.

The following is an alphabetical list of archaeological sites in Peru, it lists the main archaeological sites of touristic importance as published by the Ministry of Foreign Commerce and Tourism Peru and reproduced on Wikipedia

Site Image Region Culture Period
Acaray Vista a Sector B 8-10-04.JPG Lima   900–200 BC, 1000–1470 AD
Aspero Lima Norte Chico 3000–1800 BC
Bandurria Bandurria Templo Tardío plaza circular.JPG Lima Norte Chico 3000–1800 BC
El Brujo Complejo arqueológico Elbrujo2 lou.jpg La Libertad Moche 100–750 AD
Buena Vista Lima  
Cahuachi Cahuachi 15.jpg Ica Nazca  
Cantamarca Lima Canta 1100–1450 AD
La Centinela Ica Chincha 0900–1450 AD
Carajía `Karajia1.jpg Amazonas  
Caral PeruCaral01.jpg Lima Norte Chico 3000–1800 BC
Chan Chan Chanchan fishnet ruins.JPG La Libertad Chimú 850–1470 AD
Chankillo[5] Chanquillo Fortaleza (remains).jpg Ancash Casma/Sechin culture 300 BC
Chavin de Huantar Chavín de Huántar.JPG Ancash Chavín  
Chinchero Chinchero Archaeological site - overview.png Cusco    
Choquequirao Choquequirao Archaeological site - house.jpg Cusco Inca  
Cumbe Mayo Cumbemayo aqueduct.JPG Cajamarca  
El Paraíso El paraiso peru.jpg Chillon River Valley 3790–3065 cal BP
Garagay Garagay altorrelieve polícromo.JPG Lima 1200 BC
Gran Pajáten Figura del Condor del Gran Pajaten.png La Libertad Chachapoyas  
Gran Saposoa Amazonas  
Gran Vilaya Amazonas Chachapoyas  
Guitarrero Cave[6] Cueva del Guitarrero.jpg Ancash 8000–7000 BC
Huaca de la Luna H Luna Frisorestaurado lou.jpg La Libertad Moche  
Huaca del Sol Huaca del Sol southeast.jpg La Libertad Moche  
Huaricanga Lima Region Norte Chico 3500-1800 BC
Huchuy Qosqo Huchuy Qosqo Stevage.jpg Cuzco Inca 1420-1530 AD
Inka Uyu Chucuito.jpg Puno  
Inka Wasi, Ayacucho Le volcan Sarasara et le lac Parinacochas. Vue des hauteurs d'Incawasi.jpg Ayacucho  
Inka Wasi, Huancavelica ATRACTIVO TURISTICO INCAHUASI.jpg Huancavelica Inca  
Inti Punku Camino-inca-dia4-c04.jpg Cusco  
Inti Watana Pumacocha Archaeological site - wall.jpg Ayacucho Inca  
Jisk'a Iru Muqu Jiska2002.jpg Puno South-Central Highland 3000–1400 BC
Kuelap Kuelap.jpg Amazonas Chachapoyas 1000–1400 AD
Kuntur Wasi Kuntur Wasi.jpg Cajamarca Chavín 1000–700 BC
K'anamarka Kanamarca.jpg Cusco  
La Galgada La Libertad Kotosh Religious Tradition 2900–1800 BC
Las Haldas or Aldas Las Aldas - panoramio.jpg Ancash 2200-300 BC
Llaqtapata Machu Picchu from Llactapata.jpg Cusco Inca  
Machu Pikchu 80 - Machu Picchu - Juin 2009 - edit.2.jpg Cusco Inca  
Marayniyuq Marayniyoq0002.JPG Ayacucho  
Ñusta Hispana Vilcabamba Archaeological site Nusta Hispana.jpg Cusco Inca  
Pachakamaq Pachacamac.jpg Lima Huari
Ichma
Lima
Inca
200–1450 AD
Pañamarka Pañamarca Archaeological site - overview.jpg Ancash    
Paramonga Lima Chimú 1200–1450 AD
Patallaqta Patallacta Terraces.jpg Cusco Inca  
Phuyupatamarka Phuyupatamarca (cloud-level town).jpg Cusco  
Pikillaqta Piquillacta Archaeological site - building.jpg Cusco Huari 500–1200 AD
Pikimach'ay Ayacucho 12000 BC
Pinkuylluna Ollantaytambo granaries Stevage.jpg Cusco  
Pisac Sun Temple at Pisac, Peru.jpg Cusco Inca  
Puka Pukara Tambo Machay Décembre 2006.jpg Cusco Inca  
Pukllana Huaca Pucllana 1.JPG Lima
Miraflores
Lima 200–700 AD
Puruchuco Puruchuco Archaeological site - overview.jpg Lima Ichma
Inca
1470–1532 AD
Quispiguanca Cuzco Inca 1460-1530s AD
Qulu Qulu Colo Colo.jpg Puno  
Qunchamarka Conchamarka (cooking stove spot).jpg Cusco  
Qurikancha Cusco Coricancha Inti-Huasi main view.jpg Cusco Inca  
Quriwayrachina Cusco  
Q'inqu Q'enqo.jpg Cusco  
Raqch'i Raqchi 01.jpg Cusco Inca 1450–1532 AD
Rumiqullqa Rumicolca.jpg Cusco  
Runkuraqay Ruins Of Rest-hut, Inca Trail.jpg Cusco  
Sacred Valley Urubamba - Valle Sagrado 3.JPG Cusco Inca  
Saksaywaman Sacsahuaman wall3.jpg Cusco Killke and Inca 900–1532 AD
Sayhuite Sayhuite Archaeological site - rock sculpture.jpg Apurímac Inca  
Sechin Alto Sechín Archaeological site - relief (head profile left).jpg Ancash Casma/Sechin culture 2000–1500 BCE
Sillustani Chulpas de la época Kolla 2.jpg Puno Colla 1200–1450 AD
Sipán TumbaSeñorSipán3 lou.jpg Lambayeque Moche  
Suntur Sondor Archaeological site - overview.jpg Apurímac  
Tambo Colorado TamboColorado-colours.PNG Ica Inca 1470–1532 AD
Tampu Mach'ay Tambo Machay Archaeological site - bath.png Cusco Inca 1470–1532 AD
Tarawasi Tarahuasi Archaeological site - wall.jpg Cusco Inca  
Tarmatampu Tarmatambo.jpg Junín Inca 1470–1532 AD
Tipón Tipón Archaeological site - overview.jpg Cusco Inca  
Toquepala Caves Una pintura rupestre de la cueva de Toquepala.JPG Tacna 7650 BC
Toro Muerto ToroMuerto.jpg Arequipa Huari 900–1200 AD
Túcume Tucume Tempelberg-mit-Plattform.jpg Lambayeque Lambayeque, Chimú and Inca 800–1532 AD
Tunanmarka Tunanmarca Archaeological site - storehouse.jpg Junín Huanca  
Uchkus Inkañan Uchkus Inkañan archeological site Huancavelica.PNG Huancavelica Inca  
Ullantaytampu Ollantaytambo2.jpg Cusco Inca 1450–1532 AD
Usnu Willkawaman ushnu.jpg Ayacucho  
Vilcabamba
(Espiritu Pampa)
Espiritu Pampa Archaeological site - tree on wall.jpg Cusco Inca  
Vilcashuamán Vilcas Huamán Archaeological site Arch.jpg Ayacucho Inca 1470–1532 AD
Vitcos
Vitcos Archaeological site.jpg Cusco Inca  
Wallamarka Huallamarca Archaeological site - pyramid.jpg Lima Hualla 500–1450 AD
Wamanmarka Huamanmarka Archaeological site.jpg Cusco  
Wanuku Pampa Huánuco Pampa Archaeological site - doorway.jpg Huánuco Inca 1470–1532 AD
Waqramarka Huacramarca2.jpg Ancash  
Wari ruins Tomb at Wari ruins near Ayacucho.jpg Ayacucho Huari 500–900 AD
Wari Willka Templo de Huarivilca.jpg Junín Huanca  
Willkaraqay Willkaraqay ruins.jpg Cusco  
Willkawayin WillkawainTempel2.jpg Ancash  
Wiraquchapampa Wiracochapampa1.jpg La Libertad  
Wiñay Wayna Peru Wiñay Wayna.jpg Cusco Inca  


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